This post started with mining references from a Hungarian boron review. The borate binding autoinducer 2 that is also a quorum sensing small molecule turned out to be a rabbit hole of sorts. The final publication tied into this post found that 5mg/kg boron in pig feed decreased the diarrhea index better than 10 mg /kg for a "quadratic" rather than a linear effect. The conclusion was that it takes the right about of boron to improve digestion of a very nutritious diet. Too much means more nutrients arriving in the hind gut for the micro flora.
Bioilms were present in 57% of patients with IBS and 34% of patients with ulcerative colitis compared with 6% of controls (P < .001). These yellow-green adherent layers of the ileum and right-sided colon were microscopically confirmed to be dense bacterial biofilms. 16S-sequencing links the presence of biofilms to a dysbiotic gut microbiome, including overgrowth of Escherichiacoli and Ruminococcus gnavus. R. gnavus isolates cultivated from patient biofilms also formed biofilms in vitro. Metabolomic analysis found an accumulation of bile acids within biofilms that correlated with fecal bile acid excretion, linking this phenotype with a mechanism of diarrhea.