clays and binders

Detox binders bind nutrients

Clays and activated carbon bind water and fat soluble vitamins as well as amino acids. These agents are used as animal feed additives to bind mycotoxins.

The new thoughts came from table 3 of Kalil et al 2022 [1]

Activated carbon36c18e14b
Yeast cell wall48 a22de25a
1AA, amino acids: lysine, methionine, and threonine. 2WSV, water-soluble vitamins: B1, B2, B3, and B6. 3FSV, fat-soluble vitamins: D and E. a, b, c, d, e 100 mg of each mycotoxin binder was used in these experiments. Different superscripts in the same column indicate a significant effect between binders (P < 0.05).
  • pH 3 for the final solution
  • 1.25 g/L pepsin
  • 0.5 mL of malic acid, 42 µL/L lactic acid, 0.5 g/L citric
  • acid, and 50 µL/L acetic acid
  • vortexed and shaken before water bath at 37°C for 2 h with vortexing every 1 hr.
  • After 2 h, the pH was neutralized to 6.5 with 2 mL of sodium bicarbonate solution (8.8 g/100 mL) and
  • 2 mL of a second solution containing 3.5 g/100 mL bile salts from Sigma and 1 g/100 mL pancreatin. This incubation was for 2hr.
  • The tubes were 50mL. The authors used 100mg of the mycotoxin binders.
  • The doses of substrates were as follows: 100 mg of Lys, Thr, and Met; 0.15 mg of vitamin B1; 0.50 mg of vitamin B2; 4.0 mg of vitamin B3; and 0.25 mg vitamin B6.
  • Samples were centrifuged and the supernatant collected for analysis. An attempt was made to combine tables 3 and 4. The white rows are B vitamins alone.
B252.7b,x18.0d,x32.9c,x 67.7a,x8.0d,x17.3d,xy
B30.0b,y1.0ab,y8.3a,y7.0ab,y 4.3ab,y 4.2ab,x
Percent of added substrate bound to mycotoxin binder.


Not 1979 the past but rather the distant, pre-biotic earth past. [3] What came first: proteins or the nucleic acids that code for the proteins. Taking the genetic code to proteins requires proteins. Some may say that proteins assembled themselves from amino acids from the clays of the pre-biotic earth. When then are all of our amino acids in proteins L-amino acids? Why are our sugars D-sugars like D-glucose.

We’ve heard of L-amino acids. These amino acids rotate light counter clockwise while D-amino acids rotate light clockwise. They have some asymmetrical carbons too.

The solid blue wedge is coming out of the screen and the dashed wedge into the screen. According to Scott Labs the sodium bentonite they sell to wine makers is good for binding proteins taking us to the pre-biotic earth. The sodium bentonite pores are less open than the calicum bentonite pores.

An image of bentonite from Scott Labs and the two forms of leucine from PubChem.

If we use the PubChem molecular mass of bentonite as 422 grams per mole, 1 mg bentonite is 2.4×10-9 moles or 24,000 picomoles because a picomole is by definition 1×10-12 moles. Pubchem assigns the molar unit of sodium bentonite as Al2H2Na2O13Si4 Many images of bentonite show water channels between layers. Can leucine molecules fit in these channels? An Internet source lists the dimensions of leucine as 0.85 x 0.5 nm. It might be a tight fit.

Two milligrams of bentonite were incubated for 15 minutes at.30°C in I ml of
a common pH 7 buffer. The strategy was to add radioactive versions of three amino acids and glucose. The nutrients were allowed time to bind. The clays were spun down at 50,000xg (the force of gravity) in a laboratory centrifuge. The clay pellets were rinse briefly with the same pH 7 buffer, suspended in water and radioactivity counted. The radioactive (hot) nutrients were “chased off with the same compounds that were not radioactive. If D-leucine does not have a similar affinity for the clay, the decrease in radioactive L-leucine on the clay will be negligible.

Left table 1 Binding is expressed as picomoles of labeled compounds per 10 mg of bentonite. Standard errors of the mean of 6 to 18 determinations are presented. Right Table 2. Kinetics of the stereospecific component of compounds binding to bentonite. Depending on how we define a mole of bentonite, binding is not dearly 1:1.

The percent occupied Al2H2Na2O13Si4 honestly does not seem to be that high. [2] One might hypothesize that the binding was driven by trace contaminants rather than the alumina and/or silica groups. Going back to the Kihal experiment, they used 100 mg of Lys (6.8×10-4 moles) , Thr( 8.4×10-4 moles), and Met (6.8×10-4 moles) and 100mg bentonite (6.7×10-4 moles) Montmorillonite/bentonite sites must have been more than 100% occupied. The issue of bentonite to bind proteins in wines has been covered in greater detail. [4] It should be pointed out that these are whole proteins, not digested amino acids. Perhaps it is best to consume a binder used for detox on an empty stomach just in case.

  1. Kihal A, Rodríguez-Prado M, Calsamiglia S. The efficacy of mycotoxin binders to control mycotoxins in feeds and the potential risk of interactions with nutrient: a review. J Anim Sci. 2022 Nov 1;100(11):skac328. PubMed not free
  2. Kihal, A., M. E. Rodriguez-Prado, C. Godoy, C. Cristofol, and S. Calsamiglia. 2020. In vitro assessment of the capacity of certain mycotoxin binders to adsorb some amino acids and water-soluble vitamins. J.Dairy Sci. 103:3125–3132. free article
  3. Bondy SC, Harrington ME. L Amino acids and D-glucose bind stereospecifically to a colloidal clay. Science. 1979 Mar 23;203(4386):1243-4. Sci-Hub free article
  4. Francois-Xavier Sauvage, Benoit Bach, Michel Moutounet, Aude Vernhet, Proteins in white wines: Thermo-sensitivity and differential adsorbtion by bentonite,Food Chemistry, Volume 118, Issue 1,2010, Pages 26-34, ISSN 0308-8146, Sci-Hub free paper

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