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How the mRNA vaccine works

Disclaimer, I still don’t know! At first I thought that the lipid nanoparticles (LNP) simply fused with whatever cells they came into contact when they were injected into my left tricep. My myocytes died in the process of producing this alien protein. Then antigen presenting marcophage came in to gobble up the mess of my wasted tissue. My own proteins as well as the spike protein were presenting to circulating T cells. My T cells got in touch with my B cells to make antibodies. I don’t think this way any more.

Issues with the Covid-19 mRNA vaccines

As of 13 July 2021 the US CDC reports about 2-5 serious allergic reactions (that include the life threatening anaphylaxis) per million vaccinated in the US. [1] More than 334 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered in the United States from December 14, 2020, through July 12, 2021. During this time, Vaccine
Adverse Event Reporting System VAERS received 6,079 reports of death (0.0018%) among people who received a COVID-19 vaccine. These effects were not necessarily caused by the vaccine. [1]

A review of Moein Moghimi of the School of Pharmacy, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne back tracked cases of anaphylaxis experienced by those receiving the lipid nanoparticle (LNP) based mRNA vaccines produced by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna. [2] Anaphylaxis is a rapid onset immune reaction. This author considered everything from latex rubber to other syringe components. [2] This was in April of 2021. In late July/August, polyethylene glycol (PEG) became the suspected trigger of anaphylaxis. [3]

2019: Accelerated Blood Clearance of PEG Lipid Nanoparticles

We have known about the poteintial immunogenicity of PEG) [4] before the Covid-19 vaccine was being used in mass vaccination efforts. Here are some key points of section 2 of review [4]

PEG Antibodies

PEG is a hydrophillic polymer. It was up until recently generally recognized as safe. (GRAS) This GRAS designation prompted its growing use as a food additive and an additive in pharmaceutical formulations. For decades PEG was considered non-immunogenic.[4] The review cited references claiming that 25-42% of blood samples tested positive for PEG antibodies. [4] These samples came from individuals with no prior exposure to PEG medicinal products. These antibodies were attributed to PEG-coupled products found in products such as soap, sunblock, cosmetics, and so on. PEG has been used in nanocarriers because it is hydrophilic and inert, [4]

PEG is not so “inert”

The Mohamed review discussed what happens when these inert LNP arrive in the spleen where B cells reside. Some of these B-cell receptors might simultaneously recognize the repeating motifs of PEG. The B cell receptor is the antibody the B-cell is programmed to make plus a membrane anshor.

  1. Multiple B-cell receptors, cell surface antibodies, recognize the same repeating PEG motif. -(O-CH2-CH2)n. – [4]
  2. PEG causes B cell receptors to cross-link. When this happens, the B cell gears up for proliferation, differeation into memory B cells and antibody producting plasma cells. This is called a T cell independent response 2 [4]
  3. What the authors called the delayed effectuation phase occurs between day 5 to day 21 after the first dose. This correlates with IgMproduction. [4]
  4. The 2nd dose of PEG coated LPN are quickly coated with IgM.
  5. The presence of IgM activates the complement system, resulting in opsonization by C3 fragments.
  6. Kupffer cells, specialized macrophages in the liver, remove the tagged LNP by endocytosis .[4]
  7. The lipids of the LNP play a role in not only protecting the mRNA but also helping it escape the endosome. [5]
  8. Ribosomes translate the mRNA to protein, e.g. the Coivd-19 spike protein.
  9. Proteosomes degrade the newly translated spike protein into peptides.
  10. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) complex shuttles peptides from the degraded spike protein into the endoplasmic reticulum. [5]
  11. In the ER peptides become associated with MHC Cklss1 complexes.
  12. Vesicles from the ER are transported to the Golgi where they are processed for insertion into the cell membrane.
  13. Surface exposed spike proteins attract circulating T cells that have the right T cell receptor to bind to the spike protein peptide. [5]
Figure 1, from reference [4] The structure of PEG (center) has been added to this open access image.

Other nuances of PEG, directing LNP to antigen presenting cells, and their manufacture are discussed in reference [5].

The Moderna lipids

  • 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)
  • cholesterol
  • PEG2000-DMG (polyethylene glycol (PEG) The safety report suggests that
  • PEG2000-DMG is a a skin and lung irritant. There really isn’t any toxicology as to
  • how much is needed to kill 50% of a group of rats or such as that.
  • 2000-dimyristoyl glycerol (DMG)
  • SM-102
  • most likely heptadecan-9-yl8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate. [2]

The Pfizer Lipids

  • ALC-0315, ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate)
  • ALC-0159, 2-[(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide
  • 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)
  • cholesterol
  • dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate
  • monobasic potassium phosphate
  • potassium chloride
  • sodium chloride
  • sucrose
  • water for injection

Conspiracy Theories

  • Lifesitenews.com claims that Dr Robert Malone MD, one of the developers of the technology was banned from platforms like Youtube and Wikipedia. I’m not going to give this site any traffic. Do your own Internet search to get a sampling of the stupidity.
  • This site referenced a Pfizer report to the Japanese government
  • Shin Jie Yong of Medium.com obtained a part the banned Pfizer report to the Japanese Government.


Figure 2 Deposition of the Pfizer LNP

a quick look over the tissue list

  • Adipose was a very insignificant site of accumulation of these lLNP delivery agents.
  • The adrenal glands see an increase over time with values at 48hr that are about10% of the injection site.
  • The injection site data makes no sense. Why would the peak be at 4 hours after injection rather than 15 minutes after injection?
  • The liver is completely consistent with [4] and accelerated blood clearance due to PEG antibodies.
  • Reproductive organs like the ovaries are a concern. However, viral RNA getting into the chromosomal DNA.
  • The spleen is also consistent with reference [4]

Just some general comments/questions:

  • Even if DNA from these LNP only gets into antigen presenting cells, do we want endocrine and reproductive organs to be the site of inflammation?
  • Do the vaccinated need to take extra precautions with PEG containing products?
  • I do not have confirmation from other sources that PEG IgM antibodies play a role in the Covid-19 mRNA vaccines.
  • If it is hard for those trained in science to get detailed information on the Covid-19 mRNA vaccines, can we blame those not trained in science when their imaginations go a little wild?

References

  1. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/safety/adverse-events.html
  2. Moghimi S. M. (2021). Allergic Reactions and Anaphylaxis to LNP-Based COVID-19 Vaccines. Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 29(3), 898–900.
  3. Nilsson, Lennart et al. “Vaccine allergy: evidence to consider for COVID-19 vaccines.” Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology vol. 21,4 (2021):
    401-409. PMC free article
  4. Mohamed, M., Abu Lila, A. S., Shimizu, T., Alaaeldin, E., Hussein, A., Sarhan, H. A., Szebeni, J., & Ishida, T. (2019). PEGylated liposomes: immunologicalresponses. Science and technology of advanced materials, 20(1), 710–724. PMC free article
  5. Reichmuth, A. M., Oberli, M. A., Jaklenec, A., Langer, R., & Blankschtein, D. (2016). mRNA vaccine delivery using lipid nanoparticles. Therapeutic delivery, 7(5), 319–334. PMC free article

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